Boeing B787

The Boeing 787 Dreamliner is a long range, mid-sized, wide-body, twin-engine jet airliner developed by Boeing Commercial Airplanes. It seats 210 to 330 passengers, depending on variant. Boeing states that it is the company's most fuel-efficient airliner and the world's first major airliner to use composite materials for most of its construction. The 787 consumes 20% less fuel than the similarly-sized Boeing 767. Its development and production has involved a large-scale collaboration with numerous suppliers.The aircraft's initial designation 7E7 was changed to 787 in January 2005. The first 787 was unveiled in a roll-out ceremony on July 8, 2007 at Boeing's Everett assembly factory, by which time it had become the fastest-selling wide-body airliner in history with 677 orders. By September 2010, 847 Boeing 787s had been ordered by 56 customers. As of 2010, launch customer All Nippon Airways has the largest number of 787s on order.Originally scheduled to enter service in May 2008, the aircraft's maiden flight took place on December 15, 2009 in the Seattle area and is currently undergoing flight testing with a goal of receiving its type certificate in late 2010, and to enter service in 2011. 

The risks of using a composite fuselage have been questioned by a former Boeing engineer, noting that carbon fiber, unlike metal, does not visibly show cracks and fatigue; the rival A350 was later announced to be using composite panels on a frame, a more traditional approach which its contractors regarded as less risky. Further concerns include that during crash landings, survivable in metal planes, a composite fuselage could shatter and burn with toxic fumes.  The porous properties of composite materials, allowing them to absorb unwanted moisture, have been questioned. As the aircraft reaches altitude, the moisture expands, and may cause delamination of the composite materials, and structural weakness over time. Boeing has dismissed criticisms of its fuselage materials, insisting that composites have been used on wings and other passenger aircraft parts for many years and they have not been an issue. They have also stated that special defect detection procedures will be put in place to detect any potential hidden damage. Another concern arises from the risk of lightning strikes, with composite having as much as 1,000 times the electrical resistance of aluminum, increasing the risk of damage. Boeing has stated that the 787's lightning protection will meet FAA requirements, and FAA management is planning to change some requirements, which will help the 787.

While Boeing had been working to trim excess weight since assembly of the first airframe began, common for new aircraft in development, the company has stated that the first six 787s will be overweight, with the first aircraft expected to be 5,000 lb (2,270 kg) heavier than specified. The seventh and subsequent aircraft will be the first optimized 787s and are expected to meet all goals, with Boeing working on weight reductions. Boeing has redesigned some parts and made more use of titanium. According to ILFC's Steven Udvar-Hazy, the 787-9's operating empty weight is around 14,000 lb (6,350 kg) overweight, which also could be a problem for the proposed 787-10.  In early 2009 a number of 787 customers started to publicly mention their dissatisfaction with the weight and range issues.In May 2009, a press report indicated a 10–15% range reduction, about 6,900 nmi (12,800 km) instead of the originally promised 7,700 to 8,200 nmi (14,800–15,700 km), for early aircraft that were about 8% overweight. Substantial redesign work is expected to correct this, which will complicate increases in production rates;

In January 2008, previous FAA concerns came to light regarding protection of the 787's computer networks from possible intentional or unintentional passenger access. The computer network in the passenger compartment, designed to give passengers in-flight internet access, is connected to the airplane's control, navigation and communication systems. Boeing called the report "misleading", saying that various hardware and software solutions are employed to protect the airplane systems, including air gaps for the physical separation of the networks, and firewalls for their software separation. Measures are provided so data cannot be transferred from the passenger internet system to the maintenance or navigation systems. As part of certification Boeing plans to demonstrate to the FAA that these provisions are acceptable.

2024 (c)