SUPERSONIC CONCORDE 

The Aérospatiale-BAC Concorde is a turbojet-powered supersonic passenger airliner, a supersonic transport (SST). It was a product of an Anglo-French government treaty, combining the manufacturing efforts of Aérospatiale and the British Aircraft Corporation. First flown in 1969, Concorde entered service in 1976 and continued commercial flights for 27 years.Among other destinations, Concorde flew regular transatlantic flights from London Heathrow (British Airways) and Paris-Charles de Gaulle Airport (Air France) to New York JFK and Washington Dulles, profitably flying these routes at record speeds, in less than half the time of other airliners.With only 20 aircraft built, the development phase represented a substantial economic loss. Additionally, Air France and British Airways were subsidised by their governments to buy the aircraft. As a result of the type’s only crash on 25 July 2000,economic effects from the 11 September 2001 attacks, and other factors, operations ceased on 24 October 2003. The last retirement flight occurred on 26 November 2003.The name of Concorde reflects the agreement between Britain and France, and in Britain it has an unusual nomenclature for an aircraft, being known simply as "Concorde". The aircraft is regarded by many as an aviation icon.

Concorde is an ogival (also "ogee") delta-winged aircraft with four Olympus engines based on those originally developed for the Avro Vulcanstrategic bomber. Concorde was the first airliner to have an (in this case, analogue) fly-by-wire flight-control system; the avionics of Concorde were unique because it was the first commercial aircraft to employ hybrid circuits. The principal designer for the project was Pierre Satre, with Sir Archibald Russell as his deputy.

Concorde pioneered the following technologies: For high speed and optimisation of flight: Double-delta (ogee/ogival) shaped wings. Variable engine air intake system controlled by digital computers Supercruise capabilityThrust-by-wire engines, predecessor of today’s FADEC-controlled engines. Droop-nose section for better landing visibility. For weight-saving and enhanced performance: Mach 2.04 (~2,170 kilometres per hour / 1,350 mph) cruising speed for optimum fuel consumption (supersonic drag minimum, although turbojet engines are more efficient at high speed) Mainly aluminium construction for low weight and conventional manufacture (higher speeds would have ruled out aluminium) Full-regime autopilot and autothrottle  allowing "hands off" control of the aircraft from climbout to landing Fully electrically-controlled analogue fly-by-wire flight controls systems High-pressure hydraulic system of 28 MPa (4,000 lbf/in²) for lighter hydraulic components Complex Air Data Computer (ADC) for the automated monitoring and transmission of aerodynamic measurements (total pressure, static pressure, angle of attack, side-slip).  Fully electrically-controlled analogue brake-by-wire system Pitch trim by shifting fuel around the fuselage for centre-of-gravity control Parts made using "sculpture milling" from single alloy billet, reducing the part-number count while saving weight and adding strength Lack of an Auxiliary power unit, as Concorde would visit large airports where a ground air start cart would be available. Movement of centre of pressure

When any aircraft passes the critical mach of that particular airframe, the centre of pressure shifts rearwards. This causes a pitch down force on the aircraft, as the centre of mass remains where it was. The engineers designed the wings in a specific manner to reduce this shift. However, there was still a shift of about 2 metres. This could have been countered by the use of trim controls, but at such high speeds this would have caused a dramatic increase in the drag on the aircraft. Instead, the distribution of fuel along the aircraft was shifted during acceleration and deceleration to move the centre of mass, effectively acting as an auxiliary trim control.

2017 (c)